导读 : 《黑客与画家》翻译完成后，我还欠出版社一篇译者序。...
要想真正说清楚"什么是黑客"，并不容易，必须梳理这个词的源流。我就决定把名著《黑客英雄》（Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution）读一遍。
Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Steven Levy 著
They had grown up with a specific relationship to the world, wherein things had meaning only if you found out how they worked.
It was the predictability and controllability of a computer system--as opposed to the hopelessly random problems in a human relationship--which made hacking particularly attractive.
The Right Thing to do was to make sure that any good program got the fullest exposure possible, because information was free and the world would only be improved by its accelerated flow.
No sooner did he decide to do something than he began work on it. He didn't bother to notify his superiors.
[One day,] You realize that computer is not just a random piece of equipment, but something hooked to a system that you can endlessly explore.
To a hacker, a closed door is an insult, and a locked door is an outrage.
In one side of the world, people were locking everything up and controlling things and preventing information from flowing the wrong way and things from being stolen.
Then there was another side of the world where people felt everything should be available to everybody.
Bureaucrats knew their survival depended on keeping people in ignorance, by using artificial means--like locks--to keep people under control.
These hackers actually thought that a person was entitled to use a tool just because he thought he could do something useful with it.
He "wasn't interested" in the teachers, the students, or anything that went on in school. He was interested in building systems.
Controlling a robot was a step beyond computer programming in controlling the system that was the real world.
[Hacker's programming is like] Hightech Tom Sawyer painting a fence with assembly code.
Theorists and grad students did not necessarily see the process of computing as a joyful end in itself: they were more concerned with getting degrees, winning professional recognition, and the, ahem, advancement of computer science.
They were all in the midst of scholarly and scientific theses and dissertations which pontificated on the difficulty of doing the kind of thing that hackers were attempting.
Improve the world by understanding and building systems.
Who you were didn't matter as much as what kind of hacker you were.
The most important thing we can do with the world is avoid randomness, and figure out ways by which things can be planned.
All serious computer programs are expressions of an individual.
The important thing about a program is that it's something you can show to people, and they can read it and they can learn something from it. It carries information. It's a piece of your mind that you can write down and give to someone else just like a book.
One of the really fun things about computers is that you have control over them. When you have a bureaucracy around a computer you no longer have control over it.
[In some places,] Develop a program that might have only sometimes worked, or might have some danger of crashing the system, that was not encouraged. You want an environment where making those mistakes is not something for which you're castigated, but an environment where people say, "Oops, you made a mistake."
The best way to get hackers to do things was to suggest them, and hope that the hackers would be interested enough. Then you would get production unheard of in industry or academia.
It is indeed true that large systems are never "finished."
A benevolently anarchistic lifestyle dedicated to productivity and passion. Art, science, and play had merged into the magical activity of programming.
[The outside of the world] did not regard computers with the same respect and fascination as did the hackers. And they did not necessarily regard the hackers' intentions as benign and idealistic.
There were many, many, many years that went by when all I did was hack computers, and I didn't feel lonely, like I was missing anything. But I guess as I started to grow up more, round out more, change more, become less eccentric in certain ways, I started needing more input from people.
It was sort of necessary for these people to be extremely brilliant and in some sense, handicapped socially so that they would just kind of concentrate on this one thing.